Misc. Tables

 

 

 

 

 

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Index to Tables (click on links below to go to chart or table on this page)

PVC Pipe Schedule 40

PVC Pipe Schedule 80

Standard Gauges for Wire and Sheet

Properties of Metals

Current vs Temperature (current required to heat nichrome wire to a specific temperature)

 

PVC Pipe Schedule 40

 

Nominal Size    OD   (in.)

Average

ID (in.)

Min.Wall Thickness Approx. Wt. Per 100' (lb) Maximum Work Pressure (psi) (1) Required Minimum Burst Pressure (psi) (2) Calculated Burst Pressure (psi) (3)
1/4" .540 .354 .088 7.88 780   4203
3/8" .675 .483 .091 10.53 620   3180
1/2" .840 .608 .109 15.63 600 1910 3053
3/4" 1.050 .910 .113 20.78 480 1540 2370
1" 1.315 1.033 .133 30.85 450 1440 2184
1-1/4" 1.660 1.364 .140 41.76 370 1180 1736
1-1/2" 1.900 1.592 .145 49.94 330 1060 1548
2" 2.375 2.049 .154 67.92 280 890 1273
2-1/2" 2.875 2.445 .203 105.46 300 870 1407
3" 3.500 3.042 .216 137.91 260 840 1204
4" 4.500 3.998 .237 194.58 220 710 1005
6" 6.625 6.031 .280 338.88 180 560 788

 

PVC Pipe Schedule 80

 

Nominal Size    OD   (in.)

Average

ID (in.)

Min.Wall Thickness Approx. Wt. Per 100' (lb) Maximum Work Pressure (psi) (1) Required Minimum Burst Pressure (psi) (2) Calculated Burst Pressure (psi) (3)
1/4" .540 .282 .119 10.0 1130   7319
3/8" .675 .403 .126 13.8 920   5400
1/2" .840 .546 .147 20.2 850 2720 4308
3/4" 1.050 .722 .154 27.3 690 2200 3634
1" 1.315 .936 .179 40.2 630 2020 3239
1-1/4" 1.660 1.255 .191 55.4 520 1660 2582
1-1/2" 1.900 1.476 .200 67.3 470 1510 2298
2" 2.375 1.913 .218 93.2 400 1290 1932
2-1/2" 2.875 2.290 .276 141.9 420 1360 2044
3" 3.500 2.864 .033 190.3 370 1200 1777
4" 4.500 3.786 .337 278.2 320 1110 1509
6" 6.625 5.709 .432 531.3 280 930 1284

 

 

(1) Data from http://www.usplastic.com/pdfdatafiles/drawings/26300pchart.pdf June 2007

(2) Data from http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/pvc-cpvc-pipes-pressures-d_796.html  June 2007

(3) There are two failure modes, axial and tangential.  The radial strength is much less than the tangential so this is the value given here.  The strength used for PVC is 8000 psi from http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/physical-properties-thermoplastics-d_808.html.  The radial strength is calculated using P = σ ( R2-r2)/r2 where P is the burst pressure, or the pressure which causes failure due to the stress reaching the tensile strength of the pipe, σ is the tensile strength of PVC (8000 psi), R is the major radius (half the outside diameter) and r is the minor radius (half the inside diameter).

 

 

Standard Gages for Wire and Sheet in Decimal Inches

 

 
Gage AWG* or 
B & S non- ferrous wire or sheet

W & M or Roebling Steel Wire

Steel Sheet

 Copper Wire (AWG) Ohms / 1000 ft, 77 F 

7/0   0.4900    
6/0 0.580 0.4615    
5/0 0.516 0.4305    
4/0 0.460 0.3938   0.0500
3/0 0.410 0.3625   0.0630
2/0 0.365 0.3310   0.0795
1/0 0.325 0.3065   0.100
1 0.289 0.2830   0.126
2 0.258 0.2625   0.159
3 0.229 0.2437 .2391 0.201
4 0.204 0.2253 .2242 0.253
5 0.182 0.2070 .2092 0.319
6 0.162 0.1920 .1943 0.403
7 0.144 0.1770 .1793 0.508
8 0.128 0.1620 .1644 0.641
9 0.114 0.1483 .1495 0.808
10 0.102 0.1350 .1345 1.02
11 0.0907 0.1205 0.1196 1.28
12 0.0808 0.1055 0.1046 1.62
13 0.0720 0.0915 0.0897 20.4
14 0.0641 0.0800 0.0747 2.58
15 0.0571 0.0720 0.0673 3.25
16 0.0508 0.0625 0.0598 4.09
17 0.0453 0.0540 0.0538 5.16
18 0.0403 0.0475 0.0478 6.51
19 0.0359 0.0410 0.0418 8.21
20 0.0320 0.0348 0.0359 10.4
21 0.0285 0.0318 0.0329 13.1
22 0.0253 0.0286 0.0299 16.5
23 0.0226 0.0258 0.0269 20.8
24 0.0201 0.0230 0.0239 26.2
25 0.0179 0.0204 0.0209 33.0
26 0.0159 0.0181 0.0179 41.6
27 0.0142 0.0173 0.0164 52.5
28 0.0126 0.0162 0.0149 66.2
29 0.0113 0.0150 0.0135 83.4
30 0.0100 0.0140 0.0120 105
31 0.0089 0.0132 0.0105 133
32 0.0080 0.0128 0.0097 167
33 0.0071 0.0118 0.0090 211
34 0.0063 0.0104 0.0082 266
35 0.0056 0.0095 0.0075 335
36 0.0050 0.0090 0.0067 423
37 0.0045 0.0085 0.0064 533
38 0.0040 0.0080 0.0060 673
39 0.0035 0.0075   848
40 0.0031 0.0070   1070
41 0.0028 0.0066    
42 0.0025 0.0062    
43 0.0022 0.0060    
44 0.00198 0.0058    
45 0.00176 0.0055    
46 0.00157 0.0052    
47 0.00140 0.0050    
48 0.00124 0.0048    
49 0.001108 0.0046    
50 0.00099 0.0044    

 

*Note: the numbers in this table are approximate, and are rounded off.  To calculate the exact diameter of and AWG wire, use this formula: dn = 0.005 x 92(36-n)/39    where dn is the diameter of the wire in inches, n is the gauge.

 

 

Properties of Metals

arranged by resistivity

 

   
Metal  Ohms per cir mil ft μohm-cm μohm-in *Approx. Temp. Coeff. per C Melting Temp. F **Specific Heat BTU/lb/F
 
Density lb/in3
Silver 9.57 1.59 .626 0.0041 1760 0.057 0.379
Copper*** 10.38 1.73 0.681 .0068 1980 0.092 0.324
Aluminum*** 17 2.82 1.11 .00429 1220 0.215 0.0975
Tungsten 34 5.65 2.22 .0046 6150 0.032 0.697
Platinum 63.2 10.5 4.13 .00393 3220 0.032 0.775
Steel, soft 72.2 12 4.72   2760 .122 0.283
Tantalum 74.6 12.4 4.88 .00383 5400 0.034 0.600
Monel 253 42 16.5 .002 2430 .11 0.311
Constantan 295 49 19.3 .0001 2300 .26 0.321
Stainless Steel 304V 433 72 28.3   2600 .12 0.290
Nichrome 602 100 39.4 .004 2550 .302 0.303

 

 

* Approximate values for increase of resistance with temperature in the range of 0-100C not applicable for extreme temperatures.

** Specific Heat changes with increase in temperature and specific alloying or impurities.  Other slightly different values can be found than what is given here.  These numbers are generally good for 0-100C

*** Commercial wire grade

 

   

CURRENT TEMPERATURE TABLE

Nichrome A & Nichrome C Wire

Approximate amperes to heat a straight oxidized wire in air to the specified temperature.  (for an approximation, divide current by two for coiled wire).

Temperature F  

400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Temperature C 205 315 427 538 649 760 871 982 1093
Gage Dia (in) Amperes
22 .0253 2.9 3.7 4.5 5.6 6.8 8.2 9.6 11.0 12.5
23 .0226 2.6 3.3 4.0 4.9 5.9 7.0 8.3 9.6 11.0
24 .0201 2.2 2.9 3.4 4.2 5.1 6.0 7.1 8.2 9.4
25 .0179 1.9 2.5 3.0 3.6 4.3 5.2 6.1 7.1 8.0
26 .0159 1.7 2.1 2.6 3.2 3.8 4.5 5.3 6.1 6.9
27 .0142 1.4 1.8 2.3 2.7 3.3 3.9 4.6 5.3 6
28 .0126 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.9 3.4 3.9 4.5 5.1
29 .0113 1.1 1.41 1.73 2.1 2.5 3.0 3.4 3.9 4.4
30 .0100 .92 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.7
31 .0089 .77 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.5 2.9 3.2
32 .0080 .68 .90 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.8
33 .0071 .59 .79 .97 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.1 2.4
34 .0063 .50 .68 .83 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
35 .0056 .43 .57 .72 .87 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7
36 .0050 .38 .52 .63 .77 .89 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.5
37 .0045 .35 .46 .57 .68 .78 .90 1.0 1.2 1.3
38 .0040 .30 .41 .50 .59 .68 .78 .88 .98 1.1
39 .0035 .27 .36 .42 .49 .58 .66 .75 .84 .92
40 .0031 .24 .31 .36 .43 .50 .57 .64 .72 .79

 

 

 

 

 

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